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The Thain's Book
An encyclopedia of Middle-earth and Numenor

North-kingdom of Arnor
including Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur

Map of Arnor
Important Dates
Names & Etymology

Arnor was the North-kingdom of the Dunedain in Middle-earth. Originally Arnor was united with Gondor in the south, but over time the two kingdoms became separated and isolated. Gondor survived, but Arnor fell apart. First it was divided into the three kingdoms of Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur, and finally it ceased to exist entirely. It was not until the reign of Aragorn, King Elessar, that the North-kingdom of Arnor was reestablished and reunited with Gondor.


Geography (see also the map below):

Arnor was located in northwestern Middle-earth in the region known as Eriador. The boundaries of Arnor and Eriador were similar but not exactly the same. Eriador included all the lands between the Misty Mountains and the Blue Mountains as far south as the Glanduin and Greyflood rivers. Arnor included most of this area except the Elvish lands west of the River Lune - beyond which Lindon was located - and east of the Bruinen and lower Hoarwell - where Rivendell and Eregion were located.

The first capital of Arnor was Annuminas on the shores of Lake Evendim. The capital was later moved to Fornost on the North Downs. Other major towns in Arnor were Bree and Tharbad.

The Great East Road the Grey Havens to Rivendell passed through Arnor. The North-South Road came to Arnor from Gondor. It traversed the Greyflood at Tharbad and continued northward through Bree to Fornost. As Arnor declined, the road fell into disuse and became known as the Greenway.

In 861 of the Third Age, Arnor was divided into three separate kingdoms: Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur. Arthedain was in the west. It lay mainly between the River Lune and the Brandywine. It also included land between the Brandywine and the Weather Hills north of the Great East Road. The cities of Annuminas and Fornost were both in Arthedain. The Shire was also located within the boundaries of Arthedain.

Cardolan was south of the Great East Road. It included the land east of the Brandywine as far as the Hoarwell and Greyflood. The Old Forest and the Barrow-downs were in Cardolan. Cardolan also included the wide open region between the Brandywine and Greyflood called Minhiriath, which had a coast on the Sea. The city of Tharbad was located on the Greyflood in Cardolan.

Rhudaur was in the east between the Weather Hills and the Misty Mountains. It lay mainly north of the Great East Road, though it did extend south of the road to include the Angle between the Hoarwell and Greyflood. In the north, Rhudaur was boarded by the Ettenmoors. The Trollshaws were located in Rhudaur. Rivendell was located just east of Rhudaur on the eastern side of the Bruinen.




Dunedain of the NorthIn 3319 of the Second Age, the island realm of Numenor was destroyed. The King Ar-Pharazon and many of his people had been corrupted by Sauron. They defied the will of the Valar and tried to sail to the Undying Lands in a misguided attempt to gain immortality. As punishment, Eru caused Numenor to sink beneath the waves.

A small group of Numenoreans had remained faithful to the Valar. The Faithful escaped the destruction of Numenor in a fleet of nine ships. They were led by Elendil and his sons Isildur and Anarion. A great wind carried their ships eastward to Middle-earth where they and their descendants became known as the Dunedain, or Men of the West.

While the five ships of Isildur and Anarion landed in the south, Elendil and his four ships came to the north. Elendil was befriended by Gil-galad, the leader of the Elves of Lindon. Elendil and his people crossed the Lune and settled in the wide lands of Eriador east of the river. They founded the cities of Annuminas and Fornost, and they also lived along the Lune and the Brandywine and in the regions of Cardolan and Rhudaur.

In 3320, the Kingdoms Gondor and Arnor were founded. Isildur and Anarion jointly ruled in Gondor. Elendil ruled Arnor, but he was also the High King of both realms.

Elendil made Annuminas his capital city. As the main symbol of royalty of the North-kingdom he bore the Sceptre of Annuminas. This was a silver rod which had previously been borne by his ancestors in Numenor. Instead of a crown, he wore the Elendilmir, which was a silver band set with a white gem.

The seven Seeing-stones called the palantiri were divided between Gondor and Arnor; four were in the south and three were in the north. The Stone of Annuminas was kept in the capital. The Stone of Amon Sul was placed in the Tower of Amon Sul which was built on Weathertop. And the Elendil Stone was kept in Elostirion - one of the three White Towers that Gil-galad built for Elendil in the Tower Hills. The first two stones were used for communicating with Gondor, but the Elendil Stone looked only westward across the Sea.

In 3429, Sauron attacked Gondor. He captured Minas Ithil, the stronghold of Isildur. Isildur and his family sailed north to Arnor while Anarion remained in Gondor to hold back the forces of Mordor. Gil-galad and Elendil formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men in 3430 to oppose Sauron. They gathered their forces at Rivendell in 3431 and then marched to Mordor.

The Last Alliance was victorious against Sauron's forces at the Battle of Dagorlad outside the Black Gate of Mordor in 3434. But Sauron remained undefeated in Barad-dur, and the Last Alliance entered Mordor to lay siege to the stronghold. The Siege of Barad-dur lasted seven years and many Elves and Men were killed including Elendil's son Anarion.

At last in 3441, Sauron came down from his tower. He fought Elendil and Gil-galad on the slopes of Mount Doom. Sauron's body was cast down, but Elendil and Gil-galad were both killed. Isildur cut the One Ring from Sauron's hand and Sauron's spirit fled from his body and went into hiding.

After the War of the Last Alliance, most of the survivors of Arnor's army returned home via the North-South Road. Isildur remained in Gondor for a time. In the year 2 of the Third Age, Isildur set out for Arnor to take up the kingship there. He left his brother Anarion's son Meneldil to rule Gondor, though Isildur intended to be the High King of both realms as his father had been.

On the way north Isildur's company was attacked by Orcs in the Gladden Fields. Isildur and his three oldest sons as well as most of his company were killed. Isildur's esquire Ohtar escaped with the shards of Elendil's sword Narsil, which had been broken in the battle against Sauron. In the year 3, Ohtar brought the shards of Narsil to Rivendell where Isildur's youngest son Valandil had remained with his mother.

Valandil was only 13 when his father died, so he remained in Rivendell under the care of Elrond until he came of age. When Valandil turned 21 in the year 10, he became the King of Arnor. Valandil did not claim the title of High King of both Gondor and Arnor. Instead, Gondor continued to be ruled by the heirs of Anarion while Arnor was ruled by the heirs of Isildur, and the two kingdoms became separated.

Arnor's population had been greatly diminished by the loss of many men in the War of the Last Alliance. The King still lived in Annuminas, but many other settlements in Arnor could no longer be maintained.

Valandil was succeeded by his son Eldacar in 249. There followed six more Kings of Arnor: Arantar, Tarcil, Tarondor, Valandur, Elendur, and Earendur. Earendur was the last King to rule all of Arnor.

When Earendur died in 861, there was dissension among his sons and Arnor was divided into three separate kingdoms: Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur. Arthedain was ruled by Earendur's eldest son Amlaith, while Cardolan and Rhudaur were ruled by two younger sons of Earendur whose names are not known.

Amlaith moved the capital to Fornost, and he brought the Stone of Annuminas there with him. Annuminas became deserted over time and the city fell into ruin. Amlaith was succeeded as King of Arthedain by his son Beleg, who was followed by Mallor, Celepharn, Celebrindor, and Malvegil.

Around 1300, during the reign of Malvegil, the Lord of the Nazgul established the realm of Angmar around the Misty Mountains east of Arnor. His identity was not known at first and he was called the Witch-king of Angmar. His purpose was to destroy the North-kingdom by taking advantage of the disunity among the kingdoms of Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur.

A major source of contention among the three kingdoms was possession of the Weather Hills, which were located at the point where all three kingdoms met. There was a palantir in the Tower of Amon Sul on Weathertop, and both Cardolan and Rhudaur wanted to claim it, particularly since Arthedain already had the two other palantiri.

In 1349, Malvegil's son Argeleb I became the seventh King of Arthedain. The direct line of Isildur had been maintained from father to son in Arthedain, but in Cardolan and Rhudaur, the line of Isildur had died out. Argeleb I therefore claimed rulership of all of Arnor.

Argeleb's claim was disputed by Rhudaur. The Dunedain had diminished in Rhudaur and rule of the country had been usurped by a lord of the Hill-men. He formed an alliance with the Witch-king of Angmar against Arthedain. In 1356, they launched an attack on the Weather Hills. Argeleb built fortifications and defended the hills, but he was killed in battle.

Argeleb's son Arveleg I succeeded him as King of Arthedain. Arveleg joined forces with Cardolan and with the Elves of Lindon to drive the enemy out of the Weather Hills. For many years, Arthedain and Cardolan continued to defend the Weather Hills and a frontier along the Great East Road and the River Hoarwell against the forces of Rhudaur and Angmar.

In 1409, the Witch-king of Angmar sent a great army to attack the Dunedain. The few remaining Dunedain in Rhudaur were killed or driven out and Rhudaur was occupied by evil Men allied with Angmar. The prince of Cardolan was killed, and there was no one left in his line to succeed him. He was buried in the Barrow-downs. Some of the surviving Dunedain of Cardolan took refuge in the Barrow-downs and the Old Forest and held out against the enemy.

The forces of Angmar surrounded Weathertop and the Tower of Amon Sul was destroyed. King Arveleg I of Arthedain was killed, but some of his men managed to retreat to Fornost, bringing with them the Stone of Amon Sul. Arveleg's son Araphor - who was only about 18 years old - became King and took charge of the defense of Fornost and the North Downs. Araphor drove back the enemy with the help of Cirdan and the Elves of Lindon and Elrond and the Elves of Rivendell.

Araphor was succeeded by his son Argeleb II in 1589. In 1601, two Hobbits named Marcho and Blanco sought permission from Argeleb II to lead a group of Hobbits from Bree to settle in the lands between the Brandywine River and the Far Downs. This area had once had farmland, vineyards, and woods belonging to the King, but the land had long been deserted. Argeleb granted the Hobbits permission on the condition that they acknowledge his rule, speed his messengers, and repair the roads and bridges. The land where the Hobbits settled became known as the Shire.

In 1636, the Great Plague came north to Arnor. Many people in Cardolan died, and the Dunedain there were wiped out entirely. The tombs in the Barrow-downs in Cardolan were occupied by evil spirits called Barrow-wights from Angmar and Rhudaur. Arthedain was not as badly affected by the Plague, and the line of Isildur continued there.

Argeleb II was followed by Arvegil, Arveleg II, and Araval. In 1851, Araval is said to have won a temporary victory over the forces of Angmar. He also tried to reoccupy Cardolan but was unsuccessful because of the Barrow-wights that lived there.

During the reign of Araval's son Araphant, communication resumed between Arnor and Gondor. The two kingdoms had long been estranged, but King Araphant and King Ondoher of Gondor realized that they were being targeted by a common enemy, though they did not know that their enemy was Sauron. Araphant and Ondoher took counsel with one another, but neither could spare help or resources to the other. The North-kingdom was once again under attack from Angmar, while the South-kingdom was attacked by the Wainriders from Rhun in the East.

In 1940, Araphant's son Arvedui married Ondoher's daughter Firiel. Four years later, King Ondoher and both his sons were killed in battle, leaving Gondor with no direct heir to the throne. Arvedui made a claim for the throne of Gondor on the grounds that he was the direct heir of Elendil - the first High King of Gondor and Arnor - and that his wife Firiel was the only remaining child of Ondoher. Gondor rejected the claim because their Kings had always come from the line of Anarion, not Isildur, and because the line of Kings was passed down through sons only, not daughters.

Earnil - a captain of the royal house - became King of Gondor, and he sent a promise of friendship and aid to Arvedui. Arvedui did not pursue his claim to the throne of Gondor. In 1964, Araphant died and Arvedui became King of Arthedain. It had been predicted by Malbeth the Seer that Arvedui would be the last King of Arthedain, and so it came to pass.

In the fall of 1973 it became apparent that the Witch-king was preparing to launch a full assault against Arthedain. Arvedui sent a message to Earnil in Gondor, but help did not arrive in time to prevent the forces of Angmar from capturing Fornost in 1974. The city was filled with the Witch-king's minions, and the Witch-king himself came there to dwell in the King's house.

Many of the Dunedain, including Arvedui's sons, retreated across the River Lune to Lindon. Arvedui and some of his men held out in the North Downs for a time, but eventually they were forced to retreat northward. They hid in the Blue Mountains until they ran out of food. Then they sought help from the Snowmen who lived near the Icebay of Forochel.

In March of 1975, Cirdan sent a ship from the Grey Havens to rescue Arvedui. A great blizzard came from the north and sank the ship. Arvedui and his men were killed and the two palantiri they had with them were lost.

A fleet from Gondor arrived at the Grey Havens bringing an army led by Earnil's son Earnur. They joined with the remaining Dunedain of the North and Elves from Lindon and Rivendell to fight the Witch-king. At the Battle of Fornost, the Witch-king's forces were defeated, and the Orcs and Men in his service were slain or driven out of Eriador.

The Witch-king tried to return to his stronghold Carn Dum, but Earnur cut off his retreat. Earnur's horse could not withstand the Nazgul's presence, and the Witch-king escaped and went to Mordor. The Witch-king did not forget Earnur. Years later in 2050 the Witch-king lured Earnur to Minas Morgul. Earnur was never seen again. The line of Kings ended in the South, and Gondor was subsequently ruled by the Stewards.

Despite the victory over Angmar, the Dunedain of the North were greatly diminished and weakened. The city of Fornost was left abandoned. Arthedain no longer existed, and the North-kingdom came to an end. The Dunedain became a wandering people. The people of Eriador called them Rangers. Some even scorned the Dunedain, not realizing who they were and not knowing that the Dunedain continued to guard and protect them.

Arvedui's son Aranarth took the title Chieftain of the Dunedain. Through the Chieftains, the line of Isildur was maintained. The heirlooms of the house of Isildur - namely the shards of Narsil, the Elendilmir, the Sceptre of Annuminas, and the Ring of Barahir - were kept at Rivendell. It also became traditional for the Chieftains of the Dunedain to foster their sons with Elrond in Rivendell, starting with Arahael son of Aranarth.

Arahael was followed by Aranuir, Aravir, and Aragorn I. In 2327, Aragorn I was killed by wolves and was succeeded by Araglas. Around 2480, during the reign of Araglas's son Arahad I, Orcs began to make strongholds in the Misty Mountains for the purpose of blocking the passes into Eriador.

Arahad I was followed by Aragost, Aravorn, Arahad II, and Arassuil. In Arassuil's time, the land became increasingly dangerous. Starting around 2740, Orcs began to come down from the Misty Mountains into Eriador. There were numerous skirmishes with the Orcs between 2745 and 2748. The Orcs even came as far west as the Shire, where the Hobbits led by Bandobras Took defeated them at the Battle of Greenfields in 2747. The people of Eriador also suffered greatly during the Long Winter of 2758-59 and the famine that followed.

Arassuil's heir Arathorn I died an untimely death in unknown circumstances in 2848. His son Argonui's reign was marked by the Fell Winter, when the Brandywine froze and white wolves entered the Shire. In the floods following the spring thaw, the city of Tharbad was ruined.

Argonui's son Arador was killed by Hill-trolls in the Coldfells north of Rivendell in 2930. His son Arathorn II was Chieftain of the Dunedain for only three years. In 2933, he was killed while hunting Orcs with Elrond's sons Elladan and Elrohir. His son Aragorn II was only two years old at the time. Aragorn's mother Gilraen brought him to live with Elrond in Rivendell. In 2951, Elrond told Aragorn of his heritage as the heir of Isildur and gave him the Ring of Barahir and the shards of Narsil.

That same year, Sauron revealed that he had returned to Mordor and was rebuilding his forces. The Dunedain increased their vigilance against Sauron's minions. In 3001, the Dunedain doubled their guard on the Shire when Gandalf began to suspect that the One Ring was there in the possession of a Hobbit named Frodo Baggins.

On September 22, 3018, the Nazgul came to the Shire seeking the One Ring and they defeated a company of Rangers guarding Sarn Ford. During the War of the Ring, evil Men came to Eriador from the south. The Shire was occupied and there was violence in Bree. Ruffians roamed the roads and woods, and there were wolves and other creatures abroad as well. Many the Dunedain had gone south led by Halbarad to join Aragorn in the war against the forces of Mordor. Sauron was finally defeated when the One Ring was destroyed on March 25, 3019.

Aragorn was accepted as the heir of Elendil by the people of Gondor, and he was crowned King of Gondor on May 1. On Midsummer's Eve, Elrond brought him the Sceptre of Annuminas which was the symbol of royalty of the North-kingdom. Aragorn reestablished the Kingdom of Arnor and the two kingdoms were reunited once more under his rule.

In the year 6 of the Fourth Age, Aragorn made the Shire a Free Land under the protection of the North-kingdom and Men were forbidden to enter. The Thain, the Master of Buckland, and the Mayor of Michel Delving were made Counsellors of the North-kingdom in the year 13.

Aragorn traveled to Arnor in the year 15. At a ceremony signifying Aragorn's accession to the kingship of Arnor, Arwen bound the Elendilmir on Aragorn's brow. He wore the Elendilmir on high days in the North-kingdom.

Arnor was made safe again and the land was repopulated. Annuminas was rebuilt as the capital of the North-kingdom. Aragorn divided his time between Annuminas in the north and Minas Tirith in the south. In the year 120, Aragorn died and was succeeded by his son Eldarion as King of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor.

Map of Arnor

Map of Arnor

Important Dates:

Second Age:

The destruction of Numenor. The Faithful escape and come to Middle-earth.

Foundation of the realms of Gondor and Arnor.

Sauron attacks Gondor. Isildur comes north to Arnor.

Elendil and Gil-galad form the Last Alliance to oppose Sauron. Birth of Isildur's son Valandil.

The army of the Last Alliance gathers in Rivendell.

The army of the Last Alliance crosses the Misty Mountains and defeats Sauron's forces in the Battle of Dagorlad. Sauron is besieged in Barad-dur.

Elendil's son Anarion is killed in battle.

Elendil and Gil-galad defeat Sauron but are themselves killed. Isildur takes the One Ring and Sauron's spirit flees his body.

Third Age:

Isildur heads north toward Arnor intending to assume the kingship but he is killed by Orcs in the Gladden Fields and the One Ring is lost.

Ohtar brings the shards of Narsil to Arnor.

Isildur's son Valandil turns 21 and becomes King of Arnor. He does not claim the High Kingship of both Gondor and Arnor.

Birth of Valandil's son Eldacar.

Birth of Eldacar's son Arantar.

Death of Valandil. Eldacar becomes fourth King of Arnor.

Birth of Arantar's son Tarcil.

Death of Eldacar. Arantar becomes fifth King of Arnor.

Birth of Tarcil's son Tarondor.

Death of Arantar. Tarcil becomes sixth King of Arnor.

Birth of Tarondor's son Valandur.

Death of Tarcil. Tarondor becomes seventh King of Arnor.

Birth of Valandur's son Elendur.

Death of Tarondor. Valandur becomes eighth King of Arnor.

Birth of Elendur's son Earendur.

Valandur slain. Elendur becomes ninth King of Arnor.

Birth of Earendur's eldest son Amlaith.

Death of Elendur. Earendur becomes tenth King of Arnor.

Birth of Amlaith's son Beleg.

Death of Earendur. Arnor is divided into three kingdoms by his sons. Earendur's eldest son Amlaith becomes King of Arthedain while the others rule Cardolan and Rhudaur.

Birth of Beleg's son Mallor.

Death of Amlaith. Beleg becomes second King of Arthedain.

Birth of Mallor's son Celepharn.

Death of Beleg. Mallor becomes third King of Arthedain.

The Harfoot branch of Hobbits cross the Misty Mountains into Eriador.

Birth of Celepharn's son Celebrindor.

Death of Mallor. Celepharn becomes fourth King of Arthedain.

Birth of Celebrindor's son Malvegil.

The Fallohide and Stoor branches of Hobbits move into Eriador.

Death of Celepharn. Celebrindor becomes fifth King of Arthedain.

Birth of Malvegil's son Argeleb I.

Death of Celebrindor. Malvegil becomes sixth King of Arthedain.

c. 1300
The Lord of the Nazgul establishes the realm of Angmar east of Arnor.

Birth of Argeleb I's son Arveleg I.

Death of Malvegil. Argeleb I becomes seventh King of Arthedain.

King Argeleb I of Arthedain tries to claim rule of Arnor because the line of Isildur has died out in Cardolan and Rhudaur. Rhudaur joins with Angmar and attacks Arthedain. Argeleb I is killed. Arveleg I becomes eighth King of Arthedain.

Birth of Arveleg I's son Araphor.

Angmar attacks the Dunedain. Rhudaur is completely subjugated and Cardolan is ravaged. Arveleg I of Arthedain is killed. Araphor becomes ninth King of Arthedain and drives back the enemy.

Birth of Araphor's son Argeleb II.

Birth of Argeleb II's son Arvegil.

Death of Araphor. Argeleb II becomes tenth King of Arthedain.

King Argeleb II allows the Hobbits to settle in the Shire.

Birth of Arvegil's son Arveleg II.

The Great Plague comes to Arnor. The Dunedain of Cardolan perish. Arthedain is not as seriously affected.

Death of Argeleb II. Arvegil becomes eleventh King of Arthedain.

Birth of Arveleg II's son Araval.

Death of Arvegil. Arveleg II becomes twelfth King of Arthedain.

Birth of Araval's son Araphant.

Death of Arveleg II. Araval becomes thirteenth King of Arthedain.

Araval wins a temporary victory over Angmar. He tries to reoccupy Cardolan but is unsuccessful.

Birth of Araphant's son Arvedui.

Death of Araval. Araphant becomes fourteenth King of Arthedain.

Birth of Arvedui's son Aranarth. (This date is probably incorrect as it conflicts with the marriage of Arvedui two years later in 1940.)

Arnor renews relations with Gondor. Arvedui marries Firiel, daughter of King Ondoher of Gondor.

King Ondoher of Gondor and his sons are killed in battle, leaving no direct heir. Arvedui tries to claim the throne of Gondor but his claim is rejected.

Death of Araphant. Arvedui becomes fifteenth and last King of Arthedain.

The Witch-king prepares an assault on Arthedain. Arvedui sends a request for help to Gondor.

The Witch-king of Angmar invades Arthedain and captures Fornost. The North-kingdom ends. Arvedui's sons and many other Dunedain retreat to Lindon. Arvedui holds out in the North Downs and then retreats north to the Icebay of Forochel.

Arvedui is shipwrecked and killed. Aid arrives from Gondor led by Earnur. The Witch-king's forces are defeated at the Battle of Fornost. The Witch-king leaves the north.

Arvedui's son Aranarth takes the title Chieftain of the Dunedain. The heirlooms of the House of Isildur are kept at Rivendell.

Birth of Aranarth's son Arahael.

The line of Kings ends in Gondor. The Stewards rule in the absence of a King.

Birth of Arahael's son Aranuir.

Death of Aranarth. Arahael becomes second Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Aranuir's son Aravir.

Death of Arahael. Aranuir becomes third Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Aravir's son Aragorn I.

Death of Aranuir. Aravir becomes fourth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Aragorn I's son Araglas.

Death of Aravir. Aragorn I becomes fifth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Aragorn I killed by wolves. Araglas becomes sixth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Araglas's son Arahad I.

Birth of Arahad I's son Aragost.

Death of Araglas. Arahad I becomes seventh Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Orcs make strongholds in the Misty Mountains to block the passes into Eriador.

Birth of Aragost's son Aravorn.

Death of Arahad I. Aragost becomes eighth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Aravorn's son Arahad II.

Death of Aragost. Aravorn becomes ninth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Arahad II's son Arassuil.

Death of Aravorn. Arahad II becomes tenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Arassuil's son Arathorn I.

Death of Arahad II. Arassuil becomes eleventh Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Orcs from the Misty Mountains begin to cause trouble in Eriador.

The Battle of Greenfields in the Shire between the Hobbits and Orcs from the Misty Mountains.

Birth of Arathorn I's son Argonui.

The Long Winter. Many people in Eriador perish.

A famine follows the Long Winter.

Death of Arassuil. Arathorn I becomes twelfth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Argonui's son Arador.

Death of Arathorn I. Argonui becomes thirteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Birth of Arador's son Arathorn II.

The Fell Winter. The Brandywine freezes and white wolves enter the Shire.

Death of Argonui. Arador becomes fourteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

Arathorn II marries Gilraen.

Arador slain by Trolls. Arathorn II becomes fifteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.

March 1: Birth of Arathorn II's son Aragorn II.

Arathorn II killed by an Orc. His son two-year-old son Aragorn is fostered at Rivendell by Elrond.

Aragorn learns of his heritage as sixteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain and the heir of Isildur. Sauron declares himself openly in Mordor and rebuilds his forces.

The Dunedain double their guard on the Shire when Gandalf suspects the One Ring is there.


March 6: Halbarad and a company of Dunedain of the North join Aragorn.
March 25: The One Ring is destroyed and Sauron is defeated.

May 1: Aragorn is crowned King of Gondor.

Midsummer's Eve: Aragorn receives the Sceptre of Annuminas.

Fourth Age:

Aragorn makes the Shire a Free Land under the protection of the Northern Sceptre and forbids Men from entering it.

Aragorn makes the Thain, the Master of Buckland, and the Mayor of Michel Delving Counsellors of the North-kingdom.

Aragorn travels to Arnor to live in Annuminas for a time.

Aragorn adds the Westmarch to the Shire.

Death of Aragorn. His son Eldarion succeeds him as King of Gondor and Arnor.

Names & Etymology:

Arnor means "land of the King" from ar meaning "royal, noble" and nor from dôr or ndor meaning "land."
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for ar(a) and dor

The North-kingdom
Arnor was the Kingdom of the Dunedain in the north, while Gondor was the Kingdom of the Dunedain in the south. Also called the North Kingdom, the Northern Kingdom, and the Northern Realm.

Arthedain was one of the three kingdoms into which Arnor became divided. The element arth may be the Sindarin equivalent of the Quenya arta meaning "exalted, lofty." It could also be connected to the word ardh meaning "realm." The word edain means "men."
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for 3AR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Shibboleth of Feanor," p. 354 (definition of arta)


Cardolan was another of the three kingdoms into which Arnor became divided. The meaning of Cardolan is uncertain. Robert Foster's Guide to Middle-earth suggests that it may mean "red hill land" from caran meaning "red," dol meaning "hill," and the ending -an from -and denoting "country, region." The relevance of this definition not clear, though it could be some sort of reference to the Barrow-downs.
Guide to Middle-earth by Robert Foster, entry for Cardolan
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for caran and dol

Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 318 note 49 (the -and ending)


Rhudaur was the third of the kingdoms into which Arnor was divided. The meaning of Rhudaur is uncertain. It may be derived from rhûn meaning "east" and daur from taur meaning "forest." Rhudaur was the easternmost kingdom and included the woodlands of the Trollshaws.
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for RO and TAWAR


The Fellowship of the Ring: "Prologue: Concerning Hobbits," p. 13-14, 18; "The Shadow of the Past," p. 61; "Fog on the Barrow-downs," p. 157; "A Knife in the Dark," p. 197-98; "Flight to the Ford," p. 214; "Many Meetings," p. 233; "The Council of Elrond," p. 255-58, 260-62, 264, 266

The Two Towers: "The Palantir," p. 203

The Return of the King: "The Passing of the Grey Company," p. 47-49, 51, 53, 60, 63; "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 119-20, 123-4; "The Houses of Healing," p. 137-38; "The Steward and the King," p. 245-46, 251; "Homeward Bound," p. 271-73

Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Numenorean Kings," p. 317-18; "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur," p. 319-20; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," passim; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-32; "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," passim

Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 365-71, 377-78

Unfinished Tales: "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn," p. 264; "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," passim; "The Palantiri," p. 411 note 1, 413-14 note 16

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 192-96, 207-11

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