An encyclopedia of Middle-earth and Numenor
Geography (see also the map below):
The land of Rohan was mainly open grassland, ideal for raising horses. The land stretched about 300 miles from north to south and 300 miles from east to west. The River Limlight was the northern border of Rohan, and the White Mountains were along the southern border. The Anduin formed the eastern border to the Emyn Muil, where the cliff called the East Wall of Rohan rose. The border then curved southwestward along the Mouths of the Entwash and the Mering Stream. This was the border between Rohan and Gondor.
On the western border of Rohan lay Fangorn Forest and the Gap of Rohan at the end of the Misty Mountains. Isengard stood on the northern side of the Gap, and Helm's Deep guarded the southern side.
A part of Rohan extended west of the Gap of Rohan, bordered by the Rivers Isen and Adorn. This region was called the west-march. During much of Rohan's history, the west-march was occupied by Men of Dunland - a land west of the Misty Mountains - or people of mixed blood who were akin to them.
The River Entwash flowed from Fangorn Forest to the Anduin and divided Rohan into two great plains called the Eastemnet and the Westemnet. Large herds of horses roamed these grassy plains, cared for by herdsmen who camped in tents year round. In the Westemnet near the Entwash there were marshes and pools, and in places the grass grew as tall as a mounted horseman's knees. The ground in the Eastemnet was firmer, and the main northward road ran through it. In the northern part of the Eastemnet there were downs. North of the downs was the rolling upland region called the Wold.
Most of the population of Rohan lived in southern Rohan, in the wooded eaves and deep valleys of the White Mountains. The capital city of Edoras, where the King lived in the Golden Hall of Meduseld, stood on a hill at the entrance to the valley of Harrowdale. In Harrowdale were two small villages called Underharrow and Upbourn. The stronghold of Dunharrow was high up on the eastern side of the valley. In the mountains behind Dunharrow was the entrance to the Paths of the Dead. The River Snowbourn flowed out of Harrowdale and joined the Entwash.
West of the Snowbourn was the region called the Westfold, where there were numerous homesteads. The stronghold of Helm's Deep was located in the Westfold in the valley called the Deeping-coomb near the Gap of Rohan. Few people visited the northern part of the Westfold near Isengard and Fangorn.
East of the Snowbourn was a small region called the Folde. The Folde was considered the center of the kingdom of Rohan because the King and the members of the royal house lived there. Edoras was in the Folde, and Aldburg was another household in the Folde where the King's kinsmen dwelled.
The Eastfold lay between the Folde and the Fenmarch. The Fenmarch was a marshy region along the Mering Stream on the border between Rohan and Gondor. Part of the Firien Wood extended across the Mering Stream into Rohan. The rest of the forest was technically in Gondor, but over time the whole Firien Wood came to be considered part of Rohan.
The Great West Road ran westward along the White Mountains from Gondor to the Gap of Rohan, where it connected with the North-South Road leading to Eriador. The road passed over the Snowbourn in front of the gates of Edoras.
For military purposes, Rohan was
divided into the the West-mark and the East-mark. The Rivers Entwash and
Snowbourn formed the boundary between the two. There were three Marshals
of the Mark commanding Rohan's military forces. The First Marshal commanded
the Muster of Edoras and the surrounding lands including Harrowdale. The
Second Marshal commanded either the East-mark or the West-mark, depending
on where the threat was the greatest. The Third Marshal commanded the remaining
region. After the War of the Ring,
Eomer eliminated these ranks and replaced them with two Marshals of
equal rank: the Marshal of the East-mark and the Marshal of the West-mark.
The people of Rohan were descended from the Northmen. The Northmen in turn were descended from the same ancient race of Men as the Edain. But while the fathers of the Edain moved to Beleriand and later gave rise to the Numenoreans, the Northmen settled in Wilderland. The Northmen lived mainly on the eastern edge of Mirkwood and raised large herds of horses on the wide plain between the forest and the River Running.
After Gondor was founded by the survivors of Numenor in 3320 of the Second Age, the Northmen became their allies, in part because of their distant kinship. Around 1250 of the Third Age, Valacar, the son of King Romendacil II of Gondor married Vidumavi, the daughter of Vidugavia, the most powerful leader of the Northmen. Their son Eldacar became King of Gondor, but some Gondorians objected to his mixed heritage, and the result was the civil war called the Kin-strife. Eldacar was deposed for ten years before he finally regained the throne in 1447 and renewed ties with the Northmen.
In the winter of 1635, the Great Plague came out of the East, and many Northmen and horses died. The Plague spread to Gondor in 1636 and decimated the population. In the part of Gondor called Calenardhon - which later became Rohan - many people died and many others moved away.
In 1851, a hostile race of Men from
the East called the Wainriders attacked the Northmen and Gondor. Marhari,
a descendant of Vidugavia, led the Northmen to join forces with Gondor
against the Wainriders in the Battle of the
Plains in 1856. But the Gondorians were forced to retreat and the Northmen
were slain, enslaved, or scattered.
After the decimation of the Northmen, Marhari's son Marhwini led a group of survivors to live along the Anduin between the Gladden River and the Carrock, mainly on the western bank of the river. They called themselves the Eotheod, meaning "Horse-people."
The Eotheod renewed their friendship with Gondor. In 1899, Marhwini and the Eotheod helped King Calimehtar thwart another invasion by the Wainriders. Marhwini also tried to help the Northmen who were still enslaved by the Wainriders free themselves, but the revolt was unsuccessful.
In the next century, the Eotheod were again troubled by the Wainriders, who conducted raids up the Anduin from the south and through Mirkwood from the east. Marhwini's son Forthwini warned King Ondoher of Gondor that the Wainriders were regrouping. When the invasion came, Riders of the Eotheod joined the Gondorians in battle against the Wainriders. King Ondoher was slain, but Earnil defeated the Wainriders in the Battle of the Camp and became King of Gondor.
In 1977, the people of the Eotheod decided to relocate. They needed more room for their growing population of people and horses, and they were troubled by the evil presence in Dol Guldur in Mirkwood where, unknown to them, Sauron dwelled. Frumgar led the Eotheod northward to a new home.
The new land of the Eotheod was at the source of the Anduin. The Langwell and Greylin which fed the Anduin formed the southern border of their land. On the west side were the Misty Mountains and on the east side was the Forest River. Northward were the Grey Mountains. The fortified burg named Framsburg was at the juncture of the Langwell and Greylin.
Although the Witch-king of Angmar had been defeated in 1975, remnants of his forces still lurked east of the Misty Mountains, and the Eotheod killed them or drove them away. Frumgar's son Fram slew Scatha the Worm in the Grey Mountains, and the land had peace from Dragons for many years afterward. But Fram took the Dragon's treasure, which angered the Dwarves, and there was enmity between the two peoples.
Around 2501, Leod, the leader of the Eotheod, captured a wild horse, but he was killed when he tried to ride it. Leod's son Eorl tamed the horse and named it Felarof. From Felarof were descended the magnificent horses called the mearas which were the steeds of Eorl's descendants.
Eorl was only 16 when he succeeded his father as leader of the Eotheod. By that time, the population of both people and horses had multiplied. The Eotheod needed more land, but they had nowhere to expand or move.
On March 25, 2510, an errand-rider named Borondir arrived bringing a message to Eorl from Cirion, the Steward of Gondor. Cirion asked the Eotheod to come to Gondor's aid against an imminent invasion by a hostile race of Men from Rhun called the Balchoth. Eorl agreed, because he knew that if Gondor fell, all of Middle-earth would soon be conquered.
Eorl summoned his council of Elders and prepared to ride to war. A few hundred soldiers were left to guard the land of the Eotheod and the women, children, and elderly who remained behind. Eorl then assembled a great eohere - or cavalry - of 7,000 fully armed Riders and several hundred mounted archers. They set out on April 6 and began the 500-mile journey southward.
When the eohere passed Dol Guldur where Sauron dwelled, a white mist came from the woods of Lothlorien on the opposite side of the Anduin. The mist drove back the shadow of Dol Guldur and hid the Riders from any enemy forces in the area. Borondir speculated that Galadriel, the Lady of Lothlorien, was helping the Eotheod.
On April 15, the Riders of the Eotheod arrived at the Field of Celebrant, between Lothlorien and the River Limlight, and found the northern army of Gondor in trouble. The Balchoth had invaded Calenardhon south of the Limlight and the Gondorians had been defeated in the Wold. The Gondorians retreated across the Limlight to the Field of Celebrant, where they were surprised by an army of Orcs from the Misty Mountains.
Eorl and his Riders arrived just in time and turned the tide of the Battle of the Field of Celebrant. They attacked the enemy forces from the rear and drove them back over the Limlight. The Riders of the Eotheod pursued them across the fields of Calenardhon until all were slain or driven out.
After the battle, Eorl met with Cirion on Halifirien, the Hill of Awe, in the Firien Wood on the border between Calenardhon and Gondor. As a reward for their great service, Cirion gave the Eotheod the land of Calenardhon, which had become unpopulated due to Plague, emigration, and war. In return, Eorl swore an oath to remain Gondor's ally and come to their aid in time of need. The Gift of Cirion and the Oath of Eorl were to remain in effect until the return of the King of Gondor.
Eorl returned to the North to gather
the people and possessions that had been left behind and he led them to
their new homeland.
The Line of Kings of Rohan
Eorl was the first King of the Mark. He ruled for 35 years, from 2510 to 2545. Eorl chose the hill at the entrance to the valley of Harrowdale in the White Mountains as the site for the capital city of Edoras. But the Golden Hall of Meduseld was not built in his lifetime, and he dwelled at Aldburg in the Folde.
The Easterlings launched a series of attacks along the Anduin and in the Emyn Muil on Rohan's eastern border. In 2545, Eorl was killed in battle with the Easterlings in the Wold. He was buried in a mound at the foot of the hill where Edoras stood.
Eorl was succeeded by his son Brego. Brego drove the Easterlings out of the Wold. He also began to push back the Dunlendings - a race of Men from west of the Misty Mountains who had infiltrated Rohan over the River Isen.
Meduseld was built during Brego's reign. The great hall was completed in 2569. At the celebratory feast, Brego's son Baldor announced that he intended to enter the Paths of the Dead. Brego and Baldor had found the Dark Door while exploring Harrowdale, and they had met an old man who told them that the tunnels beyond were haunted by the Dead. Baldor entered the Paths of the Dead in 2570 and never returned. Brego died of grief shortly afterwards.
Brego's second son Aldor became King. He was known as Aldor the Old, and he had the longest reign of any King of Rohan - 75 years from 2570 to 2645. Aldor drove out the last of the Dunlendings, who came to hate the Rohirrim. During Aldor's reign, the population of Rohan increased and the Rohirrim settled in the valleys of the White Mountains including Harrowdale.
Aldor's son Frea was old when he became King and he ruled only 14 years until 2659. Frea was followed by his son Freawine, who in turn was succeeded by his son Goldwine. Rohan was peaceful and prosperous during this time.
Deor, son of Goldwine, became king in 2699. During his reign, the Dunlendings began to raid the Westfold to steal horses. Many came across the River Isen, but it soon became apparent some Dunlendings had made settlements in the northern part of the Westfold near Fangorn and Isengard. In 2710, Deor led a force to the northern Westfold and defeated an army of Dunlendings.
Deor proceeded to Isengard and found that it was occupied by Dunlendings. The stronghold belonged to Gondor, but over time the Gondorian chieftains who guarded it had died out and had been succeeded by chieftains of mixed blood who were friendly to the Dunlendings. The few remaining guards had been killed, and the Dunlendings occupied the Ring of Isengard. Deor sent to Gondor for aid, but no help could be spared. The Rohirrim did not have the resources to retake Isengard, so Deor set up a guard of Riders to keep watch in the northern Westfold. Deor was succeeded by his son Gram in 2718.
Helm, son of Gram, became King of Rohan in 2741. Rohan was invaded by the Dunlendings during his reign. A Man of Rohan named Freca, who had Dunlendish blood, began to expand his own domain on the border between Rohan and Dunland in defiance of the King's rule. At a council meeting in 2754, Freca sought a marriage between his son Wulf and King Helm's daughter. Helm refused, and when Freca became enraged and insulted the King, Helm slew him with one blow from his mighty fist. Thus he became known as Helm Hammerhand.
Freca's son Wulf led the Dunlendings to invade Rohan four years later in 2758. The Dunlendings were aided by the Corsairs, who had launched a massive assault against Gondor at the same time. Rohan was also invaded by enemies from the East.
The Dunlendings overran Rohan and captured Edoras. Helm's son Haleth died defending the doors of Meduseld, and Wulf sat on the throne in the Golden Hall. Helm was driven back from the Crossings of the Isen to the stronghold in the Deeping-coomb that became known as Helm's Deep. Many other Rohirrim took refuge there and in other valleys of the White Mountains, including Harrowdale where Helm's nephew Frealaf defended the stronghold of Dunharrow.
The Long Winter began in November of 2758 and lasted five months until March of 2759. The Rohirrim were starving and desperate, besieged in their strongholds. Helm's son Hama died on a sortie from Helm's Deep, and Helm himself froze to death on Helm's Dike.
When spring came, Frealaf led a force from Dunharrow and reclaimed Edoras. Frealaf slew Wulf and the Rohirrim drove the Dunlendings out of Rohan. The melting snow caused flooding around the Mouths of the Entwash, and the invaders from the East withdrew. Gondor was at last able to send aid to Rohan. That same year Beren, the Steward of Gondor, gave the stronghold of Isengard to Saruman, believing that the Wizard's presence would help protect Rohan against invasion in the future.
Frealaf, son of Helm's sister Hild, was the first of the Second Line of Kings of Rohan. Saruman attended his coronation and brought many gifts. Rohan began to slowly recover from the effects of the war and the Long Winter.
Frealaf's son Brytta succeeded him in 2798. Brytta was a popular king and was known as Leofa, the Beloved. He was generous and helpful to those in need. During his reign, Rohan was troubled by Orcs who had fled to the White Mountains from the Misty Mountains after the Battle of Azanulbizar against the Dwarves. When Brytta died in 2842, it was thought that the Orcs had been routed from the White Mountains, but Brytta's son Walda was killed by Orcs near Dunharrow only nine years later in 2851.
Walda was succeeded by Folca, who continued to hunt Orcs in the White Mountains until the last of them were cleared out in 2864. After he completed his task, Folca hunted boar in the Firien Wood. He slew the Great Boar of Everholt but was wounded by its tusks and died.
During the reign of Folca's son Folcwine, Rohan finally recovered its full strength and prosperity. Folcwine reclaimed the west-march between the Rivers Adorn and Isen from the Dunlendings.
Under King Folcwine, Rohan's military forces were reorganized. The full muster of the Rohirrim - called the eohere - was reckoned to consist of 100 companies. Each company - or eored - had at least 120 Riders. Thus the full strength of the eohere was at least 12,000 Riders at this time.
In 2885, Folcwine fulfilled the Oath of Eorl by sending troops to help Gondor fight an invading army of Haradrim. The combined forces of Gondor and Rohan were victorious, but Folcwine's twin sons Folcred and Fastred were killed. They were buried together in a single mound on the shores of the River Poros in Ithilien, and Turin II, the Steward of Gondor, sent gold to Folcwine as a compensation for their sacrifice.
In 2903, Folcwine was succeeded by his third son Fengel, who was the least popular King of Rohan. He was greedy and he fought with his marshals and his children. His son Thengel left home and went to Gondor, where he served the Steward Turgon with distinction. Thengel married Morwen of Lossarnach in 2943 and they had four daughters and one son, Theoden.
Thengel returned to Rohan after his father's death in 2953. He was reluctant to leave Gondor, and he continued to use the language of Gondor in his household, but he ruled Rohan well and wisely.
During Thengel's reign, Saruman declared himself Lord of Isengard. Saruman had secretly made alliances with the Dunlendings and had built an army of Orcs, including a particularly strong kind known as the Uruk-hai which could withstand sunlight. The Uruk-hai began to raid Rohan, though the Rohirrim did not realize at first that they came from Isengard.
Orcs from Mordor in Sauron's service also began to cross the Anduin to steal horses - especially black ones to be used as steeds for the Nazgul. In 3002, Eomund of Eastfold - the husband of Thengel's daughter Theodwyn - was slain by Orcs in the Emyn Muil. Theodwyn died soon after. Their children, Eomer and Eowyn, went to live at Meduseld with their uncle Theoden, who had become King in 2980.
Early in Theoden's reign, he was strong and vital and well loved by his people. But by 3014, Theoden had become physically frail and was dependent upon his counsellor Grima. Unknown to the Rohirrim, Grima was in the service of Saruman. Grima used his persuasiveness, possibly combined with poisons, to weaken Theoden and thereby weaken Rohan's defenses.
Gandalf the Grey came to Rohan in September of 3018 to warn King Theoden that Saruman was a traitor, but Theoden - under Grima's influence - sent the Wizard away. Soon afterwards, Saruman began to act openly on his plan to conquer Rohan. He claimed lordship over Rohan's lands and closed the Gap of Rohan to the Rohirrim and sent companies of Uruk-hai across Rohan's borders.
Theoden's son Theodred and nephew Eomer assumed command of Rohan's defenses. Saruman perceived them as a threat. Theodred was killed by Saruman's forces at the First Battle of the Fords of Isen on February 25, 3019. Grima tried to discredit Eomer by implying that he was power-hungry and disloyal to King Theoden.
When Eomer learned that a company of Uruk-hai had descended into Rohan from the Emyn Muil, Grima convinced Theoden to refuse permission to pursue them. But Eomer suspected an alliance between Saruman and Sauron, and he defied orders and led his eored in pursuit. Eomer and his Riders attacked and slew the Uruk-hai at the edge of Fangorn Forest on February 29. Unknown to the Riders, Merry Brandybuck and Pippin Took - two Hobbits who had been prisoners of the Uruk-hai - escaped into the forest.
The next day, Eomer encountered Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli, who had pursued the Uruk-hai across Rohan to try to rescue the Hobbits. Eomer learned that Aragorn was the rightful heir to the throne of Gondor, and he decided to let the three strangers continue on their way though this was against orders. Eomer was imprisoned on his return to Edoras.
On March 2, Gandalf came to Edoras with Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli. Gandalf freed King Theoden from Grima's influence, and Theoden decided to ride to war against Saruman's forces. He led forth a host of Riders from the Muster of Edoras.
That same day, Saruman unleashed his great army of 10,000 Orcs as well as Men of Dunland from Isengard. The vanguard of the army encountered resistance at the Fords of Isen led by Grimbold and Elfhelm. The Rohirrim were defeated at the Second Battle of the Fords of Isen, and the survivors were scattered.
After Saruman's army left Isengard, the stronghold was attacked by Ents from Fangorn Forest led by Treebeard. The Ents destroyed Isengard and imprisoned Saruman in the Tower of Orthanc.
When Theoden learned of the defeat at the Fords of Isen and the approach of Saruman's great army, the King led his forces to the stronghold of Helm's Deep. Saruman's army advanced through the Westfold, killing and burning as they came. They besieged the Rohirrim during the Battle of Helm's Deep on the night of March 3-4.
At dawn on March 4, King Theoden led a charge from Helm's Deep. At the same time, Gandalf arrived with 1,000 of Men of the Westfold and their lord Erkenbrand. Saruman's army fled into a forest of Huorns sent by Treebeard and were never seen again.
After confronting Saruman at Isengard, King Theoden went to Harrowdale to oversee the Muster of the Rohirrim. A messenger from Gondor named Hirgon brought news that Sauron was preparing to attack. Hirgon carried the Red Arrow - a symbol that Denethor, the Steward of Gondor, was calling upon the Rohirrim to fulfill the Oath of Eorl. On March 10, Theoden led a force of 6,000 Riders forth from Harrowdale. About 4,000 were left behind to guard Rohan.
On March 12, an army of Orcs from Dol Guldur entered the Wold of Rohan after trying unsuccessfully to invade Lothlorien. The Ents confronted them, killing most of the Orcs and driving the rest into the Anduin.
King Theoden and the Rohirrim arrived at the Pelennor Fields around Minas Tirith at dawn on March 15. They found the city besieged by Sauron's army. The Rohirrim charged onto the battlefield and engaged the Enemy forces.
The Lord of the Nazgul was distracted by the arrival of the Rohirrim just as he was about to enter the gates of Minas Tirith. He mounted his Fell Beast and flew to attack the Rohirrim. King Theoden was killed, and his niece Eowyn and esquire Merry Brandybuck slew the Lord of the Nazgul.
The Battle of the Pelennor Fields was won by the combined forces of Rohan and Gondor. Upon Theoden's death, his nephew Eomer became the first of the Third Line of Kings of Rohan. King Eomer attended the meeting of the Captains of the West on March 16 and agreed to lead the Rohirrim to the Black Gate of Mordor in order to give Frodo Baggins time to fulfill his quest to destroy the One Ring.
Three thousand Rohirrim led by Elfhelm were sent to the Great West Road to battle the Enemy forces that remained in Gondor. King Eomer led 1,000 Rohirrim - 500 mounted and 500 on foot - to the Black Gate. On March 25, the forces of Rohan and Gondor fought Sauron's army in the Battle of the Morannon until the One Ring was destroyed and Sauron was utterly defeated.
At the victory celebration on the Field of Cormallen, King Eomer joined in honoring Frodo Baggins and his companion Sam Gamgee. On May 1, King Eomer attended the coronation of Aragorn as King of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor. Eomer and Aragorn remained friends, and Rohan and Gondor remained allies. Eomer accompanied Aragorn to Halifirien where they renewed the Oath of Eorl and the Gift of Cirion.
Eomer and the Rohirrim frequently accompanied Aragorn into the lands of the East and South were enemies formerly in Sauron's service still roamed. Eomer created the position of Underking to rule Rohan in the King's absence or to lead the Rohirrim into battle in place of the King. This was usually the King's heir.
Eomer married Lothiriel, the daughter of Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth. His son and heir was Elfwine the Fair. Eomer's sister Eowyn married Faramir, the Steward of Gondor and Prince of Ithilien.
Eomer ruled Rohan until his death in 63 of the Fourth Age. During his 65-year reign, the population of Rohan increased in the valleys and on the plains, and the herds of horses grew as well. At the dawn of the Fourth Age, Rohan was a land of peace and prosperity.
The realm of Gondor is founded. The region of Calenardhon is a province in northwestern Gondor.
The son of King Romendacil II of Gondor marries the daughter of King Vidugavia of the Northmen.
Eldacar - whose mother was of the Northmen - becomes King of Gondor. The civil war of the Kin-strife begins.
Eldacar is overthrown.
Eldacar regains the throne of Gondor and renews ties with the Northmen.
The Great Plague kills many of the Northmen as well as many people living in Calenardhon.
The Wainriders invade the lands of the Northmen and attack Gondor.
Marhari of the Northmen joins the forces of Gondor in the Battle of the Plains against the Wainriders. The Northmen are slain, enslaved, or scattered. Afterwards, Marhari's son Marhwini leads a group of survivors to live near the Anduin. They become the Eotheod.
Marhwini and the Eotheod help King Calimehtar of Gondor thwart another invasion by the Wainriders.
The Eotheod again join the fight against the Wainriders. The Wainriders are finally defeated by Earnil of Gondor in the Battle of the Camp.
Frumgar leads the Eotheod north to a new land at the source of the Anduin.
Birth of Eorl.
Death of Eorl's father Leod. Eorl becomes the leader of the Eotheod. He tames the wild horse Felarof, father of the mearas.
March 25: A messenger from Gondor comes seeking the help of Eorl and the Eotheod against an invasion by the Balchoth.
April 6: Eorl and his eohere
set out for Gondor.
April 15: Eorl and his Riders defeat the Balchoth at the Battle of the Field of Celebrant.
August: Eorl and Cirion meet on Halifirien. Cirion gives the land of Calenardhon - which becomes known as Rohan - to Eorl and his people. Eorl swears an oath to remain an ally of Gondor and to help them in time of need.
Birth of Eorl's son Brego.
Birth of Brego's second son Aldor.
Death of Eorl in battle with the Easterlings. Brego becomes King of Rohan.
The hall of Meduseld is completed.
Brego's son and heir Baldor enters the Paths of the Dead and never returns. Brego dies of grief. Aldor becomes King of Rohan. Birth of Aldor's son Frea.
Birth of Frea's son Freawine.
Birth of Freawine's son Goldwine.
Birth of Goldwine's son Deor.
Death of Aldor. Frea becomes King.
Death of Frea. Freawine becomes King.
Birth of Deor's son Gram.
Death of Freawine. Goldwine becomes King.
Birth of Gram's son Helm.
Death of Goldwine. Deor becomes King.
Deor defeats an army of Dunlendings in the Westfold but discovers that the Dunlendings have captured Isengard.
Death of Deor. Gram becomes King.
Birth of Frealaf, son of Helm's sister Hild.
Death of Gram. Helm becomes King.
Birth of Frealaf's son Brytta.
Helm kills Freca, a man of Rohan with Dunlendish blood.
Freca's son Wulf leads the Dunlendings to invade Rohan. Death of Helm's son Haleth. Helm takes refuge in the stronghold that becomes known as Helm's Deep. The Long Winter begins in November.
Death of Helm's son Hama. Death of Helm. The Long Winter ends in March. Helm's nephew Frealaf retakes Edoras and drives the Dunlendings out of Rohan. Frealaf becomes King. Saruman is given Isengard by the Steward of Gondor.
Birth of Brytta's son Walda.
Death of Frealaf. Brytta becomes King.
Battle of Azanulbizar between the Orcs and Dwarves. Some Orcs flee south to the White Mountains.
Rohan begins to be troubled by Orcs in the White Mountains.
Birth of Walda's son Folca.
Birth of Folca's son Folcwine.
Death of Brytta. Walda becomes King.
Walda is killed by Orcs in the White Mountains. Folca becomes King.
Birth of Folcwine's twin sons Folcred and Fastred.
Folca drives the last Orcs from the White Mountains. He is killed by a boar in the Firien Wood. Folcwine becomes King.
Birth of Folcwine's son Fengel.
Folcwine sends troops to help Gondor stop an invasion by the Haradrim. His sons Folcred and Fastred are killed.
Death of Folcwine. Fengel becomes King.
Birth of Fengel's son Thengel.
Thengel marries Morwen of Lossarnach.
Birth of Thengel's son Theoden.
Death of Fengel. Thengel becomes King.
Birth of Thengel's daughter Theodwyn.
Birth of Theoden's son Theodred. Theoden's wife Elfhild dies in childbirth.
Death of Thengel. Theoden becomes King.
Birth of Eomer, son of Theodwyn and Eomund.
Birth of Eowyn, daughter of Theodwyn and Eomund.
Theodwyn's husband Eomund is killed by Orcs in the Emyn Muil. She dies of grief soon after. Theoden brings their children Eomer and Eowyn to live with him at Meduseld.
Theoden begins to fall under the influence of Grima - a traitor in the service of Saruman.
September 19: Gandalf comes to Edoras and is refused admittance.
September 20: Gandalf has an audience with King Theoden and warns him of Saruman's treachery, but Theoden sends him away. Soon afterwards, Saruman begins to act openly in his plan to conquer Rohan.
September 23: Gandalf leaves Rohan with Shadowfax.
February 25: Theoden's son Theodred is killed by Saruman's forces at the First Battle of the Fords of Isen.
February 26: Eomer learns that a host of Orcs entered Rohan from the East Wall and he suspects an alliance between Mordor and Isengard. Grima convinces Theoden to refuse permission to follow them.
February 27: Theoden learns of Theodred's death. Erkenbrand sends a request for reinforcements but Grima advises against it and Theoden follows his advice. Eomer leads his eored in pursuit of the Orcs against King Theoden's orders.
February 28: Eomer's eored overtakes the Orcs near Fangorn.
February 29: Eomer's eored attacks and defeats the Orcs at sunrise.
February 30: Eomer meets Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli and decides to aid them. On his return to Edoras, Eomer is arrested.
March 2: Theoden is freed
from Grima's influence by Gandalf and decides to ride to war against Saruman.
Saruman's army leaves Isengard. Second Battle of the Fords of Isen. The
Ents arrive at Isengard.
March 3: Theoden learns of the defeat at the Second Battle of the Fords of Isen. He leads the Rohirrim to Helm's Deep. Battle of Helm's Deep begins. The Ents imprison Saruman and begin the destruction of Isengard.
March 4: The Battle of Helm's Deep is won by the Rohirrim at dawn. The Ents flood Isengard.
March 5: Theoden and Eomer parley with Saruman at Isengard.
March 6: Theoden makes Merry Brandybuck his esquire. The King and his Riders set out for Dunharrow.
March 9: The King and his Riders arrive at Dunharrow. A messenger from Gondor comes requesting Rohan's aid in battle.
March 10: The Muster of Rohan. An eohere of 6,000 sets out for Gondor.
March 12: Orcs enter the Wold after trying to invade Lothlorien. They are defeated by Treebeard and the Ents.
March 13: The Rohirrim pass through the Druadan Forest.
March 14: Ghan-buri-ghan leads the Rohirrim past the enemy forces.
March 15: Battle of the Pelennor Fields. Death of King Theoden. Eomer becomes King of the Mark. Eowyn and Merry slay the Lord of the Nazgul.
March 16: Eomer attends the debate of the commanders and agrees to follow Aragorn to the Black Gate.
March 18: The Host of the West leaves Minas Tirith.
March 20: Eowyn meets Faramir, Steward of Gondor.
March 25: The Host of the West battles the forces of the Enemy at the Black Gate until the Ring is destroyed and Sauron's realm falls.
April 8: Eomer attends the celebrations on the Field of Cormallen.
May 1: Eomer attends the coronation
May 8: Eomer and Eowyn return to Rohan to set their land in order.
July 18: Eomer returns to
July 22: The funeral escort of King Theoden leaves Minas Tirith.
August 7: The funeral escort
arrives in Edoras.
August 10: Funeral of King Theoden. Eomer announces the betrothal of Eowyn to Faramir of Gondor.
August 14: The Fellowship leaves Edoras.
Eomer weds Lothiriel, daughter of Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth. Eowyn weds Faramir, Steward of Gondor and Prince of Ithilien.
Merry Brandybuck visits King Eomer in Rohan. King Eomer dies in the autumn. He is succeeded by his son Elfwine.
Calenardhon was the name of the region that became Rohan when it was still a part of Gondor. The name means "The Green Province" from calen meaning "green" and ardh meaning "realm." (UT, Index; HoME V, entries for 3AR and KAL)
Rohan means "horse land" from the Sindarin roch meaning "horse" and the ending -and denoting a country or region. The correct spelling was Rochand or sometimes Rochan since in speech the final d was usually dropped. This was the name used in Gondor, though the Rohirrim sometimes used it as well. (UT, p. 318-9)
of the Riders / The Riddermark / The Mark
The Rohirrim called their own land the Mark of the Riders or the Riddermark or simply the Mark for short. The word Mark is from the Old English mearc meaning "borderland." (UT, p. 306-7)
The people of Rohan were called the Rohirrim meaning "horse lords" from the Sindarin roch meaning "horse" and hîr meaning "lord" and the ending rim meaning "great number, host." The proper spelling was actually Rochirrim. (UT, p. 306-7)
Éothéod was the name of the ancestors of the Rohirrim and it was also the name of the land at the source of the Anduin where they dwelled. The name Éothéod means "horse people" or "horse land" from the Old English eoh meaning "horse" and théod meaning both "land" and "people." (UT, p. 315)
The Rohirrim were sometimes called the Eorlingas, or "people of Eorl," their first King. The ending lingas is a plural of ling, a suffix denoting "belonging to" in Old English. Also spelled Eorlings. (UT, p. 435)
The Rohirrim were called Forgoil by the Dunlendings, which meant "strawheads" in their language in reference to the blonde hair of most Rohirrim. (TTT, p. 142; App. F of LotR, p. 408)
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 326-29, 334-35; "The House of Eorl," passim
Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," passim; "The Battles of the Fords of Isen,"
"Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings," entries for Eastemnet, Fenmarch, and Folde
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